Phases of Information LaunderingPlacementInformation from its original source is distorted by applying the first technique(s), intentionally or accidentally, in preparation for the layering process.LayeringIL techniques ar applied by a network of intermediaries to further distort and disseminate the information.IntegrationThe false or misleading information resulted from the application of IL techniques is accepted by legitimate media outlets and/or social media users, and enters into the public discourse.

Citation Rodríguez, Belén Carrasco. 2020. “Information Laundering in Germany.” NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence, 6.