LAURA INGRAHAM (HOST): Dr. Risch, something that we've talked about now for well over a year on this show is early intervention with COVID. So to the extent they're worried about not a hundred percent of Americans getting vaccinated, we're leaving behind what we've already discovered to be, in some cases, quite effective early treatment of COVID.
And so I know you've read a lot of the things, or seen a lot of the studies on drugs like ivermectin, hydroxychloroquine used in some countries. But a range of treatments that have had some positive effect, vitamin D, zinc, and so forth. Looking back on this, was that a real miss by the United States and the FDA and the CDC?
DR. HARVEY RISCH (YALE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEATLH): Yes. It was definitely a miss, but it's not over and we still need those and we have them. And in fact, last year at this time, we had one or two drugs, now we've got six or seven that we know that are generic, well-tolerated, completely safe medications to use that should be used as at least a backup. And when people can't take the vaccines, choose not to take the vaccines for, you know, reasons of — of whatever medical or other circumstances, there’s backup for that. Or when the vaccines don't work, in the small percents where they don't work, we've got backup for that. And early outpatient treatment, which we know works and works very effectively, is that backup.