CNN explained how conservative radio personalities have created a climate that allowed extreme Republican presidential candidates Donald Trump and Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX) to become the party's front-runners. In turn, Cruz and Trump have frequently praised far-right radio hosts and recycled their talking points.
In one of the last rallies before the Iowa caucuses, Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX) allowed right-wing radio hosts, Glenn Beck, Michael Berry,and Steve Deace, to introduce him, despite their records of espousing extreme rhetoric.
Cruz's rally featured seven speakers including anti-gay activists like CEO of The Family Leader Bob Vander Plaats and Duck Dynasty patriarch Phil Robertson as well as Iowa's Rep. Steve King (R). However, it was the presence of radio hosts Glenn Beck, Michael Berry, and Steve Deace which best illustrated the divisive nature of Cruz's platform.
Beck, once of Fox News fame and now a television and radio host on The Blaze, previously caused controversy due to his claim that President Obama is a "racist" with "a deep-seated hatred for white people or the white culture." The host has been criticized in the past for his use of Nazi imagery, his history of violent rhetoric and for making outlandish claims like blaming President Obama for the November terrorist attack in Paris. Beck announced his endorsement of Cruz in January, making Cruz the first candidate he has officially endorsed in his broadcast career.
Iowa based radio host Steve Deace began supporting Cruz early in this election cycle and endorsed Cruz in August, saying he has a "commitment to our principals." Since his endorsement Deace has written at least 24 articles trumpeting Cruz, advised the candidate before debates, and appeared in a lengthy campaign ad for Cruz.
Deace's brand of extremism centers around a plethora of anti-gay ideas. Deace coined the phrase "rainbow jihad" to describe advocates for LGBT rights -- a phrase which Cruz paraphrased claiming "the jihad ... going after people of faith who respect the biblical teaching that marriage is the union of one man and one woman." Deace's extreme views have led him to write about a hypothetical conversation with Jesus in which he claims to show Obama is not a Christian and an article which suggested divorce could make children gay. Deace has recently pushed the conspiracy theory that Obama may not leave the White House when his term is up in January 2017.
Rounding out Cruz's radio host speakers was Michael Berry, a supporter of Cruz's senate bid and "friend for over ten years." Much of Berry's show revolves around stoking the flames of racial tension. The host often undermines the intentions behind the Black Lives Matter movement, claiming "black lives matter, just not to black people" and that white people don't kill people the way black people do. Comedian Chuck Knipp, a frequent guest of Berry's, performs in blackface as "Shirley Q. Liquor" to mock racial stereotypes of black people.
Most egregious is Berry's weekly segment dedicated to mocking victims of gun violence in Chicago. Every Monday the host reads the "butcher bill," reciting the names of those shot while mocking their names and the circumstances in which they were wounded or killed. Berry has claimed that the segment is sponsored by Black Lives Matter.
Right-wing media spent 2015 defending, praising, and peddling several of GOP presidential frontrunner Donald Trump's debunked falsehoods, which PolitiFact rounded up as one big "lie of the year."
Conservative media are attacking President Obama for saying in his Oval Office address on terror that Congress should limit the availability of assault weapons and the ability of people on terror watch lists to legally purchase firearms, claiming his "entirely out of place" reference to gun legislation was an attempt to "shift the conversation" and "attack the Second Amendment." In fact, the discussion of guns was pertinent to terrorism in the United States because 95 percent of U.S. terrorism fatalities since 9/11 have been the result of gunfire and Al Qaeda has urged its followers to exploit America's weak gun laws to carry out attacks.
From the December 7 edition of iHeartRadio's The Michael Berry Show:
BERRY: After spending the last several days talking about gun control, we knew Obama was going to tie ISIS to it. And he didn't disappoint saying, quote, "To begin with, Congress should act to make sure no one on a no-fly list is able to buy a gun." Well, guess what? Boston bombers, Nadal Hasan -- a U.S. army major -- and these two, were not on a no-fly list. So what is the point of your no-fly list? Which, by the way, is unconstitutional.
Then he goes on, "What could possibly be the argument for allowing a terrorist suspect to buy a semi-automatic weapon? This is a matter of national security. We also need to make it harder for people to buy powerful assault weapons like the ones that were used in San Bernadino." That is not a powerful assault weapon! Can we stop with that already? He goes on, "I know there are some who reject any gun safety measures, but the fact is that our intelligence and our law enforcement agencies -- no matter how effective they are -- cannot identify every would-be mass shooter. Whether that individual is motivated by ISIL," stop saying ISIL, it's ISIS, "or some other hateful ideology, what we can do and must do is make it harder for them to kill." Neither, none of these folks have been on no-fly lists. And by the way, they were living in the state with the strongest gun control in the country. The tightest, the strictist. So how well did that work?
Guns don't kill people, Muslims do.
In the aftermath of the Charleston, SC shooting, iHeartMedia is planning a concert to "kick off A+E Networks' campaign to confront issues of race, and promote unity and progress on racial equity." However, a large part of iHeartMedia's brand is built on its syndication of several right-wing radio hosts -- Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Glenn Beck, Mark Levin, and Michael Berry -- who consistently take racially inflammatory positions on their shows and denigrate civil rights advocacy.
Right-wing media sharply criticized the resignation of University of Missouri President Timothy M. Wolfe after a wave of protests over racial tensions erupted on the university's flagship campus. Several conservative media figures attacked the protesters, calling them "thugs" and a "mob," and claimed that Wolfe was "forced to resign" for the "crime of being a white male."
During the November 9 episode of The Michael Berry Show, Texas-based radio host Michael Berry commented on the University of Missouri president's resignation after students claimed the administration was not doing enough to address racial tension on campus. Berry said that by resigning the president was"pandering" to "thugs" who should be grateful for their opportunity and should "shut their mouth and play football."
Berry claimed the football players' participation in the call for more to be done about racist symbols and comments on campus were a distraction from the team's lackluster on-field performance. Berry criticized both the university president and the football players, saying that the university president resigned because, "The old white man didn't want to be attacked by the young black football players" and claimed the players should be more grateful for the "opportunity to try out for the NFL wearing the University of Missouri uniform."
Berry continued saying Missouri has "a problem of culture, a problem of priorities, and you got a problem of pandering." Berry also warned that Missouri's reaction to the protests were like "Neville Chamberlain [who] became the illustration of what is wrong when you pander to a bully" -- citing the British Prime Minister often criticized for unsuccessfully appeasing Hitler in the lead up to World War II.
MICHAEL BERRY: So now the president of the university has resigned. Now, think of the message this sends. Talk about the tail wagging the dog. The football players at the University of Missouri? The football players decide who the president will be? An institution of higher learning -- you're doing research on molecular biology that may lead to a cure for cancer. You're doing aeronautical research, you're doing chemical research, molecular biology research. You're educating how many thousand people? And you're letting a few thugs decide who your president will be?
Good, you do have a problem. But it's far bigger than the creative shaping of poop by somebody on your campus. You got a major problem with your priorities. If you can't rein in a few football players to shut their mouth and play football, else they lose their scholarship? You've got a real problem on your hands. You've got a problem of culture. You've got a problem of priorities, and you've got a problem of pandering.
And let me tell you something. As Neville Chamberlain became the illustration of what is wrong when you pander to a bully, there will be no peace in your time at the University of Missouri. This will not be the last time this group of thugs flexes their muscles. You can rest assured on that. When you pander to a bully you empower that bully, you feed that bully. He will grow bigger and stronger. And bullies are only effective when they have power to exercise. There will come another day and you will face off against that bully in a bigger battlefield. You've just made a huge mistake. The country continues to make a huge mistake on university campuses, workplaces, schools, the military. This is a country built on merit and accomplishments and if you don't want to play by those rules, you don't get to be on the team. Shut up about race already.
Berry has criticized civil rights protests by mocking the Black Lives Matter movement in a weekly segment satirizing shooting victims in Chicago in his attempt to prove his claim that "black lives matter, just not to black people." In addition, he has previously attacked African-American UCLA students who called for improved diversity on campus, calling them "pack animals" and saying they need to "get the F over themselves."
Conservative media wasted no time attacking former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton during her testimony in front of the House Committee on Benghazi, accusing the Democratic presidential candidate of playing "the victim," mocking her laugh, and evoking fringe conspiracy theories to smear her.
During the October 12 episode of The Michael Berry Show, Houston based radio host Michael Berry continued his recurring segment mocking gun violence in Chicago.
Referring to Chicago as "Thuglandia," Berry said one of the victims, who was 15, was found shot behind his home "bleeding his life away into the dirt." Berry described another victim who was shot in a car as having "bled out all over the upholstery...like that scene in Pulp Fiction."
Berry said the "one thing you should learn from all of this is that black lives matter, just not to black people."
Berry's reoccurring segment on Chicago violence, which he refers to as the "butcher bill," often mocks innocent victims of gun violence as well as gang related shooting victims. The Chicago segment and other race based segments represent a small portion of the inflammatory rhetoric appearing on the Michael Berry Show, which also includes appearances from a black face comedian, as well as homophobic and islamaphobic commentary.
Washington, D.C.-based radio host Thom Hartmann expressed disbelief about remarks made by Texas radio host Michael Berry, who recently claimed that "black people don't know how to exist without white people to blame their problems on." Hartmann, who is listed as 2015's ninth "most important" talk radio host in the country by Talkers magazine, said Berry's remarks demonstrated that the host was "mind-bogglingly unaware of what white privilege is."
Hartmann was responding to comments Berry made during his annual recognition of "White History Month," an invented commemoration that Berry encouraged minorities to celebrate by expressing their gratitude to white people. On that same broadcast, Berry also said, "Most white people would like to get as far from black people as they possible could and never have to see another black person." Berry's radio show relies heavily on racially-charged topics and often aims disparaging comments at black activists. He also features a weekly segment on violence in Chicago in which he often mocks minority victims of gun violence.
Radio host Michael Berry said "black people don't know how to exist without white people to blame their problems on" and "most white people would like to get as far from black people as they possibly could and never have to see another black person" during a call-in segment on his radio show, which he also used to promote October as "White History Month."
During the October 1 broadcast of his show, Berry asked listeners to call in and list stereotypical things white people like. When one caller said white people "like to talk about black people," Berry responded by describing how blacks and whites talk about one another. "Most white people would like to get as far from black people as they possibly could," said Berry, continuing, "Black people are obsessed with white people... black people don't know how to exist without white people around to blame their problems on."
(CALLER) FELTON: Michael Berry.
BERRY: Go ahead sir.
FELTON: White people like to talk about black people.
BERRY: [laughs] You know I'm going to tell you something, Felton. I don't say this to hurt your feelings, I really don't. But this is the God's honest truth and nobody's ever going to admit this to you. The fact is, most white people -- not all white people - most white people would like to get as far from black people as they possibly could and never have to see another black person, and never have to deal with black-people issues, never need to talk about black people. I'm telling you, Felton - and you don't have to believe this - I'm telling you that if white people are not around black people, they literally never talk about them. I've spent time with both groups and I'll tell you that black people are obsessed with white people and white people simply want to get away. White people go on snow skiing trips to Utah and Colorado and they never see a black person and they don't stand around going, "Boy, I tell you what! Them black people lazy! They lazy and they violent and they try'n a get our womens!" They don't do it. The only time white people talk about black people is because black people cannot let them go. They can't. Black people don't know how to exist without white people around to blame their problems on.
FELTON: That's not true, Michael Berry.
BERRY: Felton, you can't just say, "Nah uh."
FELTON: I don't blame white people for my problems.
BERRY: Well you -- Felton, please don't personalize it. I'm speaking generally in a sagacious way about social tendencies.
BERRY: So don't take it the wrong way. It isn't that white people don't like you or other black people. It's just, white people have other things they're worried about. You know, how to get their, you know, next latte or smoothie or, you know, stuff like that. You know that's really what white people are -- that's what they really, really care about.
FELTON: Hey, I like lattes and smoothies.
Berry kicked off the show by talking about "White History Month," which he said non-white people should celebrate by wishing white people "Happy White History Month." He then extolled all the things white people have done for society and compared the month to a "Jewish holiday":
BERRY: Every year at this time, I will be approached in person, on email, by folks who are not white. And they will say, 'What do I say to you people? Should I, you know, should I recognize it or is this just something ya'll do internally? I want to participate, I want ya'll to know that I, you know, I'm proud for ya'll, that ya'll too have a history that you can be proud of and that ya'll have done some things too.'
And I always say, do what comes naturally. White people are naturally excited about "White History Month," but they're probably not going to mention it publicly, unfortunately, because they don't know who all knows and they don't want to seem self-centered or too absorbed, narcissistic. So the proper thing to do is, for those of you who are not white but you say, you know what I want -- you want to encourage multiculturalism and include the white people in what you're doing, and let them celebrate, you know, their unique special identity and some of the contributions their people, the white people, have made to society. The right thing to do is simply to approach them and say, 'Happy White History Month.'
People often ask, 'What is the proper greeting for White History Month?' And it's simple, it's just -- it's like Easter. Just, 'Happy White History Month.' You can add anything you'd like to that. A nice line for a lot of white people, if you're not white, is to say, 'Happy White History Month. You know I was doing some reading on the Michael Berry Show website and I didn't realize white people had done so much. I was, I was really impressed, I mean, you should be proud.'
And you will notice their countenance will change and they will smile and it's like, you know, it's like it used to be for somebody who came to this country from Vietnam. You know, they didn't, you didn't know much about it and then everybody started saying 'pho' and so they could feel proud of what they grew up eating, and were ashamed of it, and now they realized they could be proud of that.
So, over the course of the coming month, we will assist those of you who are not white in how best to celebrate. It's like a Jewish holiday. It's happening all around you but you're really not sure why, you don't quite know the history and 'what is this Seder stuff and Passover and what does all this mean?' We're here to help you and to celebrate. And to all of -- some of you out there are white, to all of you we offer you our heartfelt greetings, "Happy White History Month." And we will have various forms of celebration over the coming month. But of course we know you'll be having your own private celebrations and this is a time of mirth and merriment amongst the white people in this country and their community. An opportunity to really celebrate and educate young white people that their people have also made contributions to world society and entrepreneurism and sport and culture and language and science and mathematics and engineering and technology. White people have actually been involved in some of these things, too. And so it's a great opportunity for us every year to learn a little bit about white people and to kind of take a moment from the greater whole and just set aside a moment to celebrate our history as white people.
Berry has a long history of making racially-charged comments and currently has a recurring segment on his show devoted to mocking minority victims of gun violence. Berry has said he is "proud" of the segment in comments on social media, praising its "awesomess" (sic).
In addition to mocking black victims of violence and making inflammatory race-based statements, Berry also likes to talk politics on his show. He recently hosted presidential candidate Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX), a friend "for over 10 years," according to Berry, who introduced Cruz to the crowd at his 2012 Senate primary campaign victory party.
In response to reports of gun violence in Chicago, Houston-based radio host Michael Berry has devoted a weekly segment on his show to reading off victims' names and mocking their injuries and deaths, in an attempt to discredit the Black Lives Matter movement.
On June 26, 2000, presidential candidate George W. Bush shared his view of immigrants and Latino-Americans in a speech before the 71st National Conference of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). "Latinos come to the U.S. to seek the same dreams that have inspired millions of others: they want a better life for their children," Bush said, calling immigration "not a problem to be solved," but "the sign of a successful nation."
With campaign strategist Karl Rove "acting as his guide," Bush went on to champion "compassionate conservatism" throughout his first presidential campaign, with an unprecedented -- for the GOP -- Hispanic outreach effort as its centerpiece. To this day, no Republican candidate has come close to winning as much of the Hispanic vote as Bush did in 2000 -- (34 percent) and 2004 (44 percent).
Ten years on, George's brother Jeb has tried to strike a similarly compassionate tone on immigration in his own quest for the White House. In April, 2014 -- more than a year before he declared his candidacy -- Jeb Bush told Fox News' Shannon Bream that many immigrants who enter the United States illegally often do so as "an act of love" for their families.
In the span of a few election cycles, "compassionate conservatism" on immigration has evolved from a winning Republican campaign strategy to a major liability for GOP presidential candidates. That shift is due in large part to the growing influence of conservative media in the debate over immigration.
Though George W. Bush won two terms as a "compassionate conservative," he never succeeded in passing immigration reform in Congress. That failure was due in part to the mobilization of right-wing media, which coalesced in the wake of his 2004 re-election. "You could say that talk radio killed President Bush's attempts at immigration reform," Frank Sharry of America's Voice told The Washington Post in 2013. "They started to lurch to the right, they wanted to give Bush a bloody nose, the conservative media mobilized."
Conservative media's opposition to immigration reform, led by talk radio, has only intensified since the defeat of the Senate immigration bill Bush supported in 2007: Rush Limbaugh recently claimed that the "colonization" or "invasion" of "illegal aliens" creates a "destructive" subculture in the U.S.; Laura Ingraham said that Congress's "Hispanic Caucus" should be renamed the "Open Borders Caucus" and claimed that migrant children were spreading diseases to "public school kids across the country;" and Texas radio host Michael Berry claimed that killings by "illegal aliens" are "not a rare occurrence."
At the same time, right-wing radio hosts have worked tirelessly to pull Republican politicians to the right on immigration, often by inciting anti-Hispanic sentiment among listeners. Rush Limbaugh has told the GOP to ignore the "non-factor" Hispanic vote. Laura Ingraham told her listeners that former Colorado U.S. Senate candidate Cory Gardner needed to move closer to the views of the extreme right on immigration, like Sen. Jeff Sessions (R-AL) and Chuck Grassley.
Perhaps the most extreme example of right-wing talk radio's hostility toward immigration came in August of 2015. Iowa Caucus GOP kingmaker and radio host Jan Mickelson, who has hosted several 2016 Republican presidential hopefuls on his show, proposed on-air that the state of Iowa enslave undocumented immigrants, saying, "Put up a sign that says at the end of 60 days, if you are not here with our permission, can't prove your legal status, you become property of the state. And then we start to extort or exploit or indenture your labor." Mickelson has previously said that he assumes that someone is not "here legally" if they have a Hispanic-sounding name and a history of involvement with the police.
Fox News has also become a major driver of right-wing fearmongering on immigration. The network's personalities regularly disparage immigrants as criminals and murderers and use derogatory and racist terms like "illegals" and "anchor babies" to describe undocumented immigrants. They also attack Hispanic civil rights groups and indiscriminately show stock video footage of immigrants crossing the border during on-air discussions about immigration. Fox News personalities have peddled the harmful and false stereotype that Hispanics immigrants are all criminals. As Sean Hannity once told his millions of radio listeners: "You want to talk about crime? Well what do you think -- who's coming from Latin America and Mexico? Are they rich, successful Mexicans, Nicaraguans, El Salvador residents? No! Why would they leave if they're so successful?"
Unsurprisingly, Fox's immigration coverage has been heavily influenced by the views of extreme anti-immigrant groups like FAIR, NumbersUSA, and Center for Immigration Studies - groups that Bush's former commerce secretary, Carlos Gutierrez, named as part of the right-wing coalition that derailed immigration reform in 2007.
Conservative media's disparaging treatment of Latinos and immigration is especially problematic given the lack of positive depictions of Latinos in mainstream media. According to a study by Columbia University, news "stories about Latinos constitute less than 1% of news media coverage, and the majority of these stories feature Latinos as lawbreakers."
The National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC) and Latino Decisions found that media stereotypes in news media about Latinos fuel negative and "hostile" attitudes, making it even harder to have reasonable or compassionate conversations about immigration reform. It's no surprise, then, that talk radio and Fox News audiences also exhibit "significantly more anti-immigrant and anti-Latino affect relative to other media consumer groups."
Conservative media's harmful coverage of immigration isn't purely motivated by animus towards Latinos; it's also a product of a media economy that incentivizes media outlets to make their coverage as sensational as possible, even if that means scaring audiences with unrealistic depictions of Latino criminality. Political media often thrives by making policy disputes as high-stakes as possible. In the case of immigration, that means emphasizing the "threat" posed by immigrants to the predominantly white, older Americans who consume conservative media. As Rep. Tom Cole (R-OK) has pointed out, "it's a financially driven enterprise and market share matters":
"While it's conservative in its orientation, it's a financially driven enterprise and market share matters. And playing to the prejudice of their audiences or reinforcing them - as opposed to engaging in enlightened and intellectual debate - is pretty widespread." The best example, he said, is immigration reform: "Here's an area we have to deal with, we've got to come to an accommodation. But the opposition, especially of talk radio, makes that almost impossible. Who in the conservative media is arguing for some kind of comprehensive immigration reform? Almost nobody."
"Today's conservative media now shapes the agenda of the party, pushing it to the far right," writes Jackie Colmes, author of a Harvard study which examined conservative media's impact on conservative politicians. According to Colmes, the GOP's rhetoric and policy positions on immigration have largely followed conservative media's lead, despite the party's own advice about developing better relationships with Hispanics.
The shrinking divide between conservative media and GOP policy on immigration helps explain why presidential candidate Donald Trump has soared in Republican voter polls by telling wildly false and exaggerated horror stories about Mexican immigrants. Trump is essentially mirroring the fear-based, fact-free approach to immigration popularized by conservative media outlets like Fox News. "[Roger] Ailes knows that Fox made Trump, politically, and that the two are made for each other," wrote Daily Beast's Michael Tomasky. And as former Reagan administration official Bruce Bartlett told Mother Jones, "Trump is sort of the most obvious example in which Fox is exercising outside influence on the Republican electoral process. I think without Fox, he would not be running, let alone a serious candidate." Various Fox News personalities have applauded Trump's immigrant smears -- echoing years of the network's own anti-immigrant rhetoric.
Largely because of the influence of anti-immigration, right-wing media, GOP politicians are losing the space they once had to call for a more compassionate tone on immigration and towards Latinos. It's a symptom of a political landscape that's blurred the divide between profit-driven conservative infotainment -- which often plays up racist and xenophobic stereotypes about Latinos -- and mainstream Republican politics.
National Rifle Association board member Ted Nugent referenced Nazi Germany's propaganda operation to claim that the worldwide outrage sparked by the killing of Cecil the lion in Zimbabwe is a "lie." He made the remarks during a media tour which saw him repeatedly defended the lion's killing by a hunter who paid guides to help him shoot big game.
Nugent has been one of the very few defenders of the paid hunt that killed Cecil -- a beloved, 13-year-old lion who was a major tourist attraction at Zimbabwe's Hwange National Park. Critics have expressed outrage about several aspects of the hunt, including its questionable legality, the fact that the hunters used bait to lure Cecil out of the preserve where he was protected, that Cecil was wounded by an arrow and suffered for two days before hunters tracked and killed him with a gun, that the hunters reportedly attempted to destroy Cecil's GPS collar signifying his participation in a scientific study, and that the hunters only took Cecil's head, leaving his body to rot.
During an Aug. 4 appearance on conservative Michael Berry's radio show, Nugent said, "Every word uttered by the 'Propaganda Ministry' about this lion kill is a lie. Every word is a lie, and I can take it lick-for-lick. Lured for a game preserve? Hello, that's why they have game preserves."
The "Propaganda Ministry" (Propagandaministerium) is one name used to describe propaganda efforts in Nazi Germany run by propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels. Nugent frequently invokes Goebbels in his inflammatory attacks.
Later during Berry's show, Nugent compared the killing of Cecil to the phrase, "Black Lives Matter." Nugent said, "The entire episode is such a lie. It's like 'Black Lives Matter' ... I suppose those who claim 'Black Lives Matter' don't believe that that the black lives in Chicago matter or Baltimore or Detroit or New Orleans or Washington, D.C., because as black lives are slaughtered by the hour, not a peep. Same with lions. Thousands and thousands of lions were killed in the exact same legal manner, and not a peep for one reason and one reason only, because they didn't have names."
Nugent's appearance on Berry's show was just one of a series of interviews he has recently given in which he defended the killing of Cecil. During an Aug. 3 appearance on The Frank Beckmann Show, Nugent even unfavorably compared modern-day Zimbabwe to its former incarnation as Dutch-ruled Rhodesia to help rationalize the lion's killing.
Without mentioning that Rhodesia, the territorial predecessor to Zimbabwe, was ruled by a white minority that subjugated the black African population, Nugent complained about Zimbabwe game officials who have launched an investigation into Cecil's killing.
He said, "Do you know that Zimbabwe, right after it came from Rhodesia -- they changed because [President Robert] Mugabe's gangsters took over all the Dutch African farms? It was the bread basket of Africa, the entire continent. It was the most agriculture, productive country in Africa and then when Mugabe and his Crips and Bloods moved in, it's become nothing but a cesspool of violence and murder and rape and they don't produce squat. Somebody choose a system. If you are on Mugabe's side you're weird."
Image via Flickr user Vince O'Sullivan under a Creative Commons license.